Modern Paints
 

Project Video




Articles in the GCI newsletter

Getty Publications

Analytical Techniques

  • Boon, Jaap J., Katrien Keune, and Tom Learner. 2002. Identification of pigments and media from a paint cross-section by direct mass spectrometry and high-resolution imaging mass spectrometric and microspectroscopic techniques. In 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), ed. Roy Vontobel, 223-30.  London: James and James.
  • Boon, Jaap J., and Tom Learner. 2002. Analytical mass spectrometry of artists' acrylic emulsion paints by direct temperature resolved mass spectrometry and laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis 64: 327-44.
  • Chiantore, Oscar, Dominique Scalarone, and Tom Learner. 2003. Characterisation of artists' acrylic emulsion paints. International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization 8: 67-82.
  • Digney-Peer, Shawn, Aviva Burnstock, Tom Learner, Herant Khanjian, Frank Hoogland, and Jaap Boon. 2004. The migration of surfactants in acrylic emulsion paint films. In Modern Art, New Museums: Contributions to the Bilbao Congress, 13-17 September 2004, ed. Ashok Roy, and Perry Smith, 202-7. London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.
  • Jönsson, Julia, and Tom Learner. 2005. Separation of acrylic paint components and their identification with FTIR spectroscopy. In Proceedings of the Sixth Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference (IRUG6): Florence, Italy, March 29th-April 1st, 2004, ed. Marcello Picollo, 58-65. Padova: Il Prato.
  • Lake, Susan, Suzanne Quillen Lomax, and Michael R. Schilling. 1999. A technical investigation of Willem de Kooning's paintings from the 1960s and 1970s. In 12th Triennial Meeting, Lyon, 29 August-3 September 1999: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), ed. Janet Bridgland, 381-85. London: Earthscan Ltd.
  • Lake, Susan, Eugena Ordonez, and Michael Schilling. 2004. A technical investigation of paints used by Jackson Pollock in his drip or poured paintings. In Modern Art, New Museums: Contributions to the Bilbao Congress, 13-17 September 2004, ed. Ashok Roy, and Perry Smith, 137-41.  London: International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works.
  • Learner, Thomas J. S. 2004. Analysis of Modern Paints. Research in Conservation. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Learner, Tom. 1998. The use of a diamond cell for the FTIR characterisation of paints and varnishes available to twentieth century artists. In Postprints IRUG2 at the V & A Proceedings of the Second Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference (IRUG2): London 12-13 September 1995, ed. Boris Pretzel, 7-20. London: Victoria and Albert Museum.
  • Learner, Tom. 2001. The analysis of synthetic paints by pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (PyGCMS), Studies in Conservation 46, 225-241.
  • Lomax, Suzanne Quillen, Michael R. Schilling, and Thomas J. S. Learner. 2007. The identification of synthetic organic pigments by FTIR and DTMS. In  Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 105-17. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Scalarone, Dominique, and Oscar Chiantore. 2004. Separation techniques for the analysis of artists' acrylic emulsion paints. Journal of Separation Science 27(4): 263-74.
  • Scalarone, Dominique, and Oscar Chiantore. 2005. FTIR monitoring of sufactant phase-separation and stability in waterborne organic coatings and artists' acrylic paints. In Proceedings of the Sixth Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference (IRUG6): Florence, Italy, March 29th-April 1st, 2004, ed. Marcello Picollo, 52-57. Padova: Il Prato.
  • Schilling, Michael R., Joy Mazurek, and Thomas J. S. Learner. 2007. Studies of modern oil-based artists' paint media by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 129-39. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Smith, Gregory Dale. 2005. A "single-shot" separation and identification technique for water extractable additives in acrylic emulsion paints. In 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-16 September 2005: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), ed. Isabelle Verger, 824-32. London: James and James Earthscan Ltd.

Physical Properties

  • Chiantore, Oscar, and Dominique Scalarone. 2007. The macro- and microassessment of physical and aging properties in modern paints. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 96-104. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Erlebacher, J. D., Marion F. Mecklenburg, and Charles S. Tumosa. 1992. The mechanical behavior of artists' acrylic paints with changing temperature and relative humidity. Polymer Preprints 33(2): 646-47.
  • Erlebacher, Jonah D., Eric Brown, Marion F. Mecklenburg, and Charles S. Tumosa. 1992. The effects of temperature and relative humidity on the mechanical properties of modern painting materials. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology III: Symposium Held April 27-May 1, 1992, San Francisco, California, U.S.A, ed. Pamela B. Vandiver, James R. Druzik, George Segan Wheeler, and Ian C. Freestone, 359-70. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. vol. 267, Pittsburgh, Pa.: Materials Research Society.
  • Hagan, Eric, Maria Charalambides, Thomas J. S. Learner, Alison Murray, and Christina Young. 2007. Factors affecting the mechanical properties of modern paints. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 227-35. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Hagan, Eric, and Alison Murray. 2005. Effects of water exposure on the mechanical properties of early artists' acrylic paints. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VII: Symposium Held November 30-December 3, 2004, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., ed. Pamela B. Vandiver, Jennifer L. Mass, and Alison Murray, 41-47. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. vol. 852, Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.
  • Learner, Tom, Oscar Chiantore, and Dominique Scalarone. 2002. Ageing studies of acrylic emulsion paints. In 13th Triennial Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, 22-27 September 2002: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), ed. Roy Vontobel, 911-19. London: James and James.
  • Ormsby, B., G. Foster, T. Learner, S. Ritchie and M. Schilling. 2007a. Improved controlled temperature and relative humidity dynamic mechanical analysis of artists' acrylic emulsion paint films: part 1. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 90(1):249-253.
  • Ormsby, B., G. Foster, T. Learner, S. Ritchie, and M. Schilling. 2007b. Improved controlled relative humidity dynamic mechanical analysis of artists' acrylic emulsion paints: part 2. General properties and accelerated ageing. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 90(2): 503-508.
  • Scalarone, Dominique, Oscar Chiantore, and Tom Learner. 2005. Ageing studies of acrylic emulsion paints Part II: Comparing formulations with poly(EA-co-MMA) and poly(n-BA-co-MMA) binders. In 14th Triennial Meeting, The Hague, 12-16 September 2005: Preprints (ICOM Committee for Conservation), ed. Isabelle Verger, 350-357. London: James and James Earthscan Ltd.
  • Schilling, Michael R. 1989. The glass transition of materials used in conservation. Studies in Conservation 34(3): 110-116.
  • Smith, Gregory D. 2007. Aging characteristics of a contemporary acrylic emulsion used in artists' paints. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 236-46.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Tumosa, Charles S. and Mecklenburg Marion F.  2004. Moisture isotherms of acrylic emulsion paints. Newsletter (Western Association for Art Conservation) 26(3): 12-14.
  • Young, Christina, and Eric Hagan. 2008. Cold temperatures effects on modern paints used for priming flexible supports. In Preparation for Painting: The Artist's Choice and Its Consequences, ed. Joyce H. Townsend, Tiarna Doherty, Gunnar Heydenreich, and Jacqueline Ridge, 163-71.  London: Archetype.

Cleaning Studies

  • Burnstock, Aviva, Klaas Jan van den Berg, Suzan de Groot, and Louise Wijnberg. 2007. An investigation of water-sensitive oil paints in twentieth-century paintings. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 177-88. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Learner, Thomas, and Bronwyn Ormsby. 2009. Cleaning acrylic emulsion paints: Putting research into context. In Conservation-restauration des oeuvres contemporaines: 13es journées d' études de la SFIIC (Section française de l'institut international de conservation), Paris, Institut national du patrimoine, 24-26 juin 2009, International Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works, Section française, 193-99. Champs-sur-Marne: SFIIC
  • Murray, Alison, Celina Contreras de Berenfeld, S. Y. Sue Chang, Elizabeth Jablonski, Tracey Klein, Marion C. Riggs, Elizabeth C. Robertson, and W. M. Anthony Tse. 2002. The condition and cleaning of acrylic emulsion paintings. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI: Symposium Held November 26-30, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, ed. Pamela B. Vandiver, Martha Goodway, and Jennifer L. Mass, 83-90. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. no. 712. Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.
  • Ormsby, B., and Tom Learner. Forthcoming. The effects of wet surface cleaning treatments on acrylic emulsion artists' paints. Reviews in Conservation.
  • Ormsby, Bronwyn, Tom Learner, Michael Schilling, Jim Druzik, Herant Khanjian, Dave Carson, Gary Foster, and Mike Sloan. 2006. The effects of surface cleaning on acrylic emulsion paintings – a preliminary investigation. In Oberflächenreinigung; Materialien und Methoden = Surface Cleaning: Material and Methods, ed. Cornelia Weyer, and Kirsten Hinderer, 135-49.  VDR Schriftenreihe. no. 2. Bonn: VDR, Verband der Restauratoren and Stuttgart: Theiss.
  • Ormsby, Bronwyn, Patricia Smithen, Frank Hoogland, Costanza Miliani, and Tom Learner. 2008. A scientific evaluation of surface cleaning acrylic emulsion paintings. In 15th Triennial Conference, New Delhi, 22-26 September 2008: Preprints, ed. Janet Bridgland, 865-73. Paris: ICOM Committee for Conservation.
  • Ormsby, Bronwyn, Patricia Smithen, and Tom Learner. 2007. Translating research into practice: Evaluating the surface cleaning treatment of an acrylic emulsion painting by Jeremy Moon. In Contemporary Collections: Preprints From the AICCM National Conference 17th – 19th October 2007 Brisbane, ed. Amanda Pagliarino, and Gillian Osmond, 97-109. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute for Conservation of Cultural Material.
  • Ormsby, Bronwyn A., Thomas J. S. Learner, Gary M. Foster, James R. Druzik, and Michael R. Schilling. 2007. Wet cleaning acrylic emulsion paint films: An evaluation of physical, chemical, and optical changes. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 189-200. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Owen, Linda, Rebecca Ploeger, and Alison Murray. 2004. The effects of water exposure on surface characteristics of acrylic emulsion paints. Journal of the Canadian Association for Conservation = Journal de l'Association canadienne pour la conservation et la restauration 29: 8-25.
  • Ploeger, R., A. Murray, S. Hesp, and Dominique Scalarone. 2005. An investigation of the chemical changes of artists' acrylic paint films when exposed to water. In Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VII: Symposium Held November 30-December 3, 2004, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.A., ed. Pamela B. Vandiver, Jennifer L. Mass, and Alison Murray , 49-56. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings. vol.  852, Warrendale, Pennsylvania: Materials Research Society.
  • Ploeger, R. E., H. F. Shurvell, E. W. Hagan, and A. Murray. 2005. Infrared analysis of material leached by water from acrylic paint films. In  Proceedings of the Sixth Infrared and Raman Users Group Conference (IRUG6): Florence, Italy, March 29th-April 1st, 2004, ed. Marcello Picollo, 46-51. Padova: Il Prato.
  • Ploeger, Rebecca, Alison Murray, Simon A. M. Hesp, and Dominique Scalarone. 2007. Morphological changes and rates of leaching of water-soluble material from artists' acrylic paint films during aqueous immersions. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 201-7. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Smithen, Patricia. 2007. A history of the treatment of acrylic painting. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 165-74. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series.  Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Stavroudis, Chris, Tiarna Doherty, and Richard Wolbers. 2005. A new approach to cleaning I: Using mixtures of concentrated stock solutions and a database to arrive at an optimal aqueous cleaning system. Newsletter (Western Association for Art Conservation) 27(2): 17-28.
  • Wolbers, Richard. 2000. Cleaning Painted Surfaces: Aqueous Methods. London: Archetype Publications Ltd.

Other Publications

  • Berrie, Barbara H., and Suzanne Quillen Lomax. 1997. Azo pigments: Their history, synthesis, properties and use in artists' materials. In Conservation Research 1996/1997, Studies in the History of Art, 9-33. Studies in the History of Art (Washington, D.C.).  no. 57. Washington: National Gallery of Art  and Hanover N.H.: Distributed by the University Press of New England.
  • Crook, Jo, and Tom Learner. 2000. The Impact of Modern Paints. London: Tate Gallery Publishing.
  • Hayes, James, Mark Golden, and Gregory D. Smith. 2007. From formulation to finished product: Causes and potential cures for conservation concerns in acrylic emulsion paints. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 58-65. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute.
  • Jablonski, Elizabeth, Tom Learner, James Hayes, and Mark Golden. 2003. Conservation concerns for acrylic emulsion paints. Reviews in Conservation 4: 3-12.
  • Lake, Susan, and Suzanne Quillen Lomax. 2007. Arylide (Hansa) yellow pigments. In Artists' Pigments: A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, ed. Barbara H. Berrie, Vol. 4, 178-222. Washington: National Gallery of Art and London: Archetype Publications.
  • Learner, Thomas J. S. 2007. Modern paints: Uncovering the choices. In Modern Paints Uncovered: Proceedings From the Modern Paints Uncovered Symposium, ed. Thomas J. S. Learner, Patricia Smithen, Jay W. Krueger, and Michael R. Schilling, 3-16. Getty Conservation Institute Symposium Proceedings Series. Los Angeles: Getty Conservation Institute
  • Learner, Tom. 2000. A review of synthetic binding media in twentieth century paints, The Conservator 24:96-103.
  • Learner, Tom. 2005. Modern paints. In Scientific Examination of Art: Modern Techniques in Conservation and Analysis, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, March 19-21, 2003, ed. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), 137-51. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Lomax, Suzanne Quillen. 2005. Phthalocyanine and quinacridone pigments: Their history, properties and use. Reviews in Conservation (6): 19-29.
  • Lomax, Suzanne Quillen, and Tom Learner. 2006. A review of the classes, structures, and methods of analysis of synthetic organic pigments. Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 45(2): 107-25.

Getty Research Library
For further information on this subject, explore Getty Research Library materials in Primo Search.

Last updated: June 2010